아시아 태평양 지역의 전동 삼륜차 시장 : 2027년까지의 예측

출판 : MarketsandMarkets(마켓츠앤마켓츠)출판년월 : 2022년06월

아시아 태평양 지역의 전동 삼륜차 시장 : 최종 용도(승객, 수하물), 범위(50마일 이하, 50마일 초과), 배터리 종류(납 축전지 및 리튬 이온), 배터리 용량(3kWh 미만, 3-6kWh, 6kWh 이상), 모터 출력, 페이로드 용량 – 2027년까지의 예측
Asia Pacific Electric 3-Wheeler Market by End-use (Passenger & Load), Range (Upto 50 Miles & Above 50 Miles), Battery type (Lead Acid & Lithium ion), Battery Capacity (Below 3kWh, 3-6kWh, Above 6kWh), Motor Power, Payload Capacity – Forecast to 2027

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Asia Pacific electric 3-wheeler market is estimated to be 272.7 thousand units in 2022 and is projected to grow to 702.1 thousand units by 2027, at a CAGR of 20.8% during the forecast period.
아시아 태평양 지역의 전기 삼륜차 시장은 2022년에 272.7천 대, 예측 기간 동안 20.8%의 CAGR로 2027년까지 702.1천 대까지 성장할 것으로 예상됩니다.


“Low operating and maintenance cost to drive the electric 3-wheeler market in Asia Pacific”
One of the most important factors driving the Asia Pacific electric 3-wheeler market is the increasing prices of petroleum products. Thus, ICE 3-wheelers are generally expensive to operate. Consumers from emerging countries are already affected by the increasing costs of petrol and diesel. Electric 3-wheelers operating on electricity significantly reduce the operating cost of these vehicles as the use of petrol and diesel is eliminated. Electric 3-wheelers are eco-friendly battery-operated 3-wheelers with better economy and lower operating cum maintenance costs than ICE 3-wheelers. Manufacturers are working towards developing 3-wheelers that have a higher range than the current models. As electric 3-wheelers have a lower number of moving parts than conventional 3-wheelers, maintenance is not a major concern. The highest maintenance cost is expected to be the cost of changing the battery, which, however, is not frequent. Electric 3-wheelers provide zero tailpipe emissions and noise-free transportation. The 3-wheelers with a carrying capacity of between three to seven people provide mobility solutions for short trips of up to 10–12 km, for first and last-mile connectivity, and as feeder services to the main haul public transport. The electrification of 3-wheelers is expected to result in lower operation and maintenance costs as compared to Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles, making them economically viable. This is driving the market for electric 3-wheelers in the Asia Pacific region.
“Government incentives and subsidies to boost the market of Electric 3-wheeler”
Growing concerns over increased pollution by the automotive industry is the prime reason government bodies are promoting electric 3-wheelers over conventional ones. They have recognized the need for promoting energy-efficient vehicles to reduce the increasing pollution. To attract and encourage people to buy electric 3-wheelers, government bodies of different countries are introducing lucrative schemes and incentives that include formidable discounts, free electricity (initially), and free public charging stations. Apart from this, governments are working with manufacturers to build charging and manufacturing facilities, exempting them from taxation. These factors are expected to drive the Asia Pacific electric 3-wheeler market in the future. For instance, in 2020, Thailand’s Board of Investment (BOI) issued tax incentives for the country’s electric vehicle (EV) industry. Originally only state agencies took on the mantle to move the industry forward through the development of vehicle and charging station prototypes. However, due to the increasing incentives from governments, the industry has become increasingly attractive to the private sector.
“New revenue pockets in Asia Pacific region to drive the market”
Asia Pacific is a high-growth market for electric 3-wheelers. Several countries in this region have a high penetration of 3-wheelers and have witnessed a surge in demand for low-emission and fuel-efficient commuting alternatives due to stringent emission norms and increasing crude oil prices. In April 2022, Bajaj Auto announced its plan to commercially launch its first electric 3-wheeler during the second half of 2022. This showcases that the demand for efficient and affordable electric 3-wheelers is expected to grow significantly in the Indian market. OEMs are entering into strategic partnerships to strengthen their bases in the Asia Pacific electric 3-wheeler market. For instance, in April 2022, Atul Auto Ltd. announced its plan to develop a prototype version of both cargo and passenger electric 3-wheelers with battery swapping solutions. It will employ the Honda Mobile Power Pack e: Swap, which is a swappable battery pack, and a powertrain system from Valeo. The market in the Asia Pacific region is expected to grow exponentially in the coming years due to the high adoption of electric 3-wheelers in China and the high potential of the Indian market.

The study contains insights from various industry experts, ranging from component suppliers to tier 1 companies and OEMs. The break-up of the primaries is as follows:
• By Company Type: OEMs – 57%, Tier 1 – 29%, Tier 2 – 14%
• By Designation: CXOs – 54%, Directors – 32%, Others – 14%
• By Region: India- 57%, Nepal – 14%, Bangladesh – 12%, Sri Lanka -10%, Others-7%
Major players profiled in the report are Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. (India), Atul Auto Ltd. (India), Piaggio Group (Italy), Lohia Auto Industries (India), and Kinetic Engineering Limited (India).

Research Coverage
The report segments the Asia Pacific electric 3-wheeler market and forecasts its size, by volume, on the basis of country (Bangladesh, Nepal, Vietnam, India, Sri Lanka, China, Japan, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, and Singapore), by end-use (passenger carrier & load carrier), range (upto 50 miles & above 50 miles), battery type (lead-acid, lithium-ion and others), battery capacity (below 3kWh, 3-6kWh, above 6kWh), motor power (below 1,000 W, 1,000-1,500 W & above 1,500 W) and payload capacity (up to 300 kg, 300–500 kg, and above 500 kg). It also covers the competitive landscape and company profiles of the major players in the Asia Pacific electric 3a-wheeler market ecosystem.

Key Benefits of Buying the Report:
• The report will help market leaders/new entrants in this market with information on the closest approximations of revenue and volume numbers for the Asia Pacific electric 3-wheeler market and its sub segments.
• This report will help stakeholders understand the competitive landscape and gain more insights to better position their businesses and plan suitable go-to-market strategies.
• The report also helps stakeholders understand the pulse of the market and provides them information on key market drivers, restraints, challenges, and opportunities.


목차

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION (Page No. – 19)
    1.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.2 MARKET DEFINITION
1.2.1 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY END-USE
1.2.2 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY BATTERY TYPE
1.3 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET: INCLUSIONS AND EXCLUSIONS
1.4 MARKET SCOPE
1.4.1 MARKETS COVERED
FIGURE 1 MARKET SEGMENTATION
1.4.2 YEARS CONSIDERED
1.5 PACKAGE SIZE
1.6 STAKEHOLDERS
1.7 SUMMARY OF CHANGES

2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (Page No. – 26)
2.1 RESEARCH DATA
FIGURE 2 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET: RESEARCH DESIGN
2.1.1 SECONDARY DATA
2.1.1.1 Key data from secondary sources
2.1.2 PRIMARY DATA
2.1.2.1 Key data from primary sources
2.1.2.2 List of participating companies for primary research
2.1.2.3 Key industry insights
2.1.2.4 Breakdown of primary interviews
FIGURE 3 BREAKDOWN OF PRIMARY INTERVIEWS, BY COMPANY, DESIGNATION, AND COUNTRY
2.2 MARKET SIZE ESTIMATION
FIGURE 4 MARKET SIZE ESTIMATION: BOTTOM-UP APPROACH
FIGURE 5 MARKET SIZE ESTIMATION: TOP-DOWN APPROACH
2.3 FACTOR ANALYSIS
2.3.1 FACTOR ANALYSIS FOR MARKET SIZING: DEMAND AND SUPPLY SIDES
2.4 DATA TRIANGULATION
FIGURE 6 MARKET BREAKDOWN AND DATA TRIANGULATION
2.5 ASSUMPTIONS
2.6 RISK ASSESSMENT
2.7 RESEARCH LIMITATIONS

3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY (Page No. – 36)
FIGURE 7 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET: MARKET DYNAMICS
TABLE 1 INDIA: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER SALES DATA, 2019-2021
FIGURE 8 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
FIGURE 9 BY END-USE, PASSENGER CARRIER SEGMENT PROJECTED TO LEAD MARKET DURING FORECAST PERIOD

4 PREMIUM INSIGHTS (Page No. – 40)
4.1 ATTRACTIVE OPPORTUNITIES IN ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET
FIGURE 10 ADOPTION OF EFFICIENT AND EMISSION-FREE VEHICLES TO DRIVE MARKET
4.2 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY MOTOR POWER
FIGURE 11 1,000-1,500 W SEGMENT EXPECTED TO LEAD MARKET FROM 2022 TO 2027 (UNITS)
4.3 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY BATTERY TYPE
FIGURE 12 LEAD-ACID BATTERY SEGMENT EXPECTED TO LEAD MARKET FROM 2022 TO 2027 (UNITS)
4.4 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY RANGE
FIGURE 13 UP TO 50 MILES SEGMENT EXPECTED TO LEAD MARKET FROM 2022 TO 2027 (UNITS)
4.5 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY BATTERY CAPACITY
FIGURE 14 3-6 KWH SEGMENT EXPECTED TO LEAD MARKET FROM 2022 TO 2027 (UNITS)
4.6 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY END-USE
FIGURE 15 PASSENGER CARRIER SEGMENT EXPECTED TO LEAD MARKET FROM 2022 TO 2027 (UNITS)
4.7 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY PAYLOAD CAPACITY
FIGURE 16 300-500 KG SEGMENT EXPECTED TO LEAD MARKET FROM 2022 TO 2027 (UNITS)
4.8 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY COUNTRY
FIGURE 17 INDIA ESTIMATED TO BE LARGEST MARKET IN 2022

5 MARKET OVERVIEW (Page No. – 44)
5.1 INTRODUCTION
TABLE 2 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET: IMPACT OF MARKET DYNAMICS
5.2 MARKET DYNAMICS
FIGURE 18 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET: MARKET DYNAMICS
5.2.1 DRIVERS
5.2.1.1 Low operating and maintenance costs
5.2.1.2 Government incentives and subsidies
TABLE 3 INDIA: GOVERNMENT INCENTIVES, BY STATE
TABLE 4 GOVERNMENT INCENTIVES, BY COUNTRY
5.2.1.3 Advancements in battery technology coupled with reducing prices
FIGURE 19 PRICE OF EV BATTERY PER KWH
5.2.1.4 Established market for 3-wheelers in urban transportation
5.2.2 RESTRAINTS
5.2.2.1 Lack of charging infrastructure
TABLE 5 INDIA: SPECIFICATIONS OF CHARGING INFRASTRUCTURE
5.2.2.2 Limited power output and vehicle range
TABLE 6 ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER RANGE
5.2.3 OPPORTUNITIES
5.2.3.1 Government support to promote electric 3-wheeler sales
TABLE 7 GOVERNMENT EV POLICY, BY COUNTRY
5.2.3.2 Stringent emission norms and environmental regulations
TABLE 8 KEY COUNTRIES: EMISSION REGULATION SPECIFICATIONS OVERVIEW, BY FUEL TYPE, 2016–2021
5.2.3.3 New revenue pockets in Asia Pacific
5.2.4 CHALLENGES
5.2.4.1 Limited battery capacity
TABLE 9 BATTERY CAPACITIES OF POPULAR ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MODELS
5.2.4.2 High initial investments
FIGURE 20 AVERAGE TOTAL COST OF CONVENTIONAL VS ELECTRIC 3-WHEELERS (2022)
5.2.4.3 Lack of compatibility, interchangeability, and standardization
5.3 PORTER’S FIVE FORCES ANALYSIS
FIGURE 21 PORTER’S FIVE FORCES ANALYSIS: ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET
TABLE 10 PORTER’S FIVE FORCES ANALYSIS
5.3.1 INTENSITY OF COMPETITIVE RIVALRY
5.3.2 THREAT OF NEW ENTRANTS
5.3.3 THREAT OF SUBSTITUTES
5.3.4 BARGAINING POWER OF SUPPLIERS
5.3.5 BARGAINING POWER OF BUYERS
5.4 MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS
5.4.1 GDP TRENDS AND FORECAST FOR MAJOR ASIA PACIFIC ECONOMIES
TABLE 11 GDP TRENDS AND FORECAST, BY MAJOR ASIA PACIFIC ECONOMIES, 2018–2026 (USD BILLION)
5.5 CASE STUDIES
5.5.1 ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER LOGISTICS FLEET OPERATION WITH CAPTIVE PLUG-IN CHARGING
5.5.2 ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER LOGISTICS FLEET OPERATION WITH BATTERY SWAPPING
5.6 TRENDS AND DISRUPTIONS
FIGURE 22 SHIFT OF FOCUS TOWARDS ELECTRIC 3-WHEELERS
5.7 REGULATORY OVERVIEW
5.7.1 INDIA
TABLE 12 INDIA REGULATORY FRAMEWORK: DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ROLE OF E-RICKSHAW AND ELECTRIC AUTO RICKSHAW
5.7.2 CHINA
5.8 TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW
5.8.1 BATTERY SWAPPING IN ELECTRIC 3-WHEELERS
5.8.2 IOT IN ELECTRIC 3-WHEELERS
5.8.3 REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEMS
5.8.4 SMART CHARGING SYSTEMS
5.9 KEY STAKEHOLDERS & BUYING CRITERIA
5.9.1 KEY STAKEHOLDERS IN BUYING PROCESS
TABLE 13 INFLUENCE OF INSTITUTIONAL BUYERS (COMMERCIAL USAGE) IN BUYING ELECTRIC 3-WHEELERS
5.9.2 BUYING CRITERIA
5.9.2.1 Passenger carrier
5.9.2.2 Load carrier
5.10 DETAILED LIST OF CONFERENCES AND EVENTS
TABLE 14 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET: DETAILED LIST OF CONFERENCES AND EVENTS
5.11 LIST OF REGULATORY BODIES, GOVERNMENT AGENCIES, AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS
TABLE 15 ASIA PACIFIC: LIST OF REGULATORY BODIES, GOVERNMENT AGENCIES, AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS
5.12 ECOSYSTEM ANALYSIS
FIGURE 23 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET: ECOSYSTEM ANALYSIS
5.12.1 OEMS
5.12.2 RAW MATERIAL SUPPLIERS
5.12.3 BATTERY MANUFACTURERS
5.12.4 CHARGING INFRASTRUCTURE PROVIDERS
5.13 SUPPLY CHAIN ANALYSIS
TABLE 16 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET: SUPPLY CHAIN
FIGURE 24 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET: SUPPLY CHAIN ANALYSIS
5.13.1 RAW MATERIAL SUPPLIERS
5.13.2 COMPONENT MANUFACTURERS
5.13.3 OEMS
5.13.4 END-USERS
5.14 AVERAGE SELLING PRICE
TABLE 17 OEM ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER PRICING ANALYSIS (USD)
FIGURE 25 LITHIUM-ION BATTERY PRICING ANALYSIS (USD/KWH)
5.15 PATENT ANALYSIS
TABLE 18 PATENT ANALYSIS: ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET (ACTIVE PATENTS)
5.16 SCENARIO ANALYSIS (2022–2027)
5.16.1 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET: MOST LIKELY SCENARIO
TABLE 19 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET: MOST LIKELY SCENARIO, BY COUNTRY, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
5.16.2 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET: OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO
TABLE 20 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET: OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO, BY COUNTRY, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
5.16.3 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET: PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO
TABLE 21 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET: PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO, BY COUNTRY, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
5.17 TRADE/SALES DATA
5.17.1 INDIA
TABLE 22 ICE 3-WHEELER PRODUCTION IN INDIA (THOUSAND UNITS)
5.18 3-WHEELER EXPORT DATA
5.18.1 INDIA
TABLE 23 3-WHEELER EXPORT (THOUSAND UNITS)

6 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY BATTERY CAPACITY (Page No. – 80)
6.1 INTRODUCTION
FIGURE 26 BY BATTERY CAPACITY, 3-6 KWH SEGMENT ESTIMATED TO ACCOUNT FOR LARGEST MARKET SIZE IN 2022
TABLE 24 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY BATTERY CAPACITY, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 25 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY BATTERY CAPACITY, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
6.1.1 OPERATIONAL DATA
TABLE 26 ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MODELS WITH BATTERY CAPACITY
6.1.2 ASSUMPTIONS
6.1.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
6.2 BELOW 3 KWH
6.2.1 DEMAND FOR AFFORDABLE TRANSPORTATION TO DRIVE SEGMENT
6.3 3–6 KWH
6.3.1 INCREASING DEMAND IN INTRACITY TRAVEL TO DRIVE SEGMENT
6.4 ABOVE 6 KWH
6.4.1 ADOPTION OF LOAD CARRIERS BY LOGISTIC COMPANIES TO DRIVE SEGMENT
6.5 KEY PRIMARY INSIGHTS
FIGURE 27 KEY PRIMARY INSIGHTS

7 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY RANGE (Page No. – 86)
7.1 INTRODUCTION
FIGURE 28 ABOVE 50 MILES SEGMENT PROJECTED TO REGISTER HIGHER CAGR DURING FORECAST PERIOD
TABLE 27 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY RANGE, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 28 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY RANGE, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
7.1.1 OPERATIONAL DATA
TABLE 29 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MODELS, BY RANGE
7.1.2 ASSUMPTIONS
TABLE 30 ASSUMPTIONS: BY RANGE
7.1.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
7.2 UP TO 50 MILES
7.2.1 DEMAND FOR AFFORDABLE ELECTRIC 3-WHEELERS TO DRIVE SEGMENT
TABLE 31 UP TO 50 MILES: ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 32 UP TO 50 MILES: ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
7.3 ABOVE 50 MILES
7.3.1 INCREASING BATTERY ENERGY DENSITY TO DRIVE SEGMENT
TABLE 33 ABOVE 50 MILES: ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 34 ABOVE 50 MILES: ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
7.4 KEY PRIMARY INSIGHTS
FIGURE 29 KEY PRIMARY INSIGHTS

8 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY END-USE (Page No. – 93)
8.1 INTRODUCTION
FIGURE 30 LOAD CARRIER SEGMENT PROJECTED TO REGISTER HIGHER CAGR DURING FORECAST PERIOD
TABLE 35 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY END-USE, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 36 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY END-USE, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
8.1.1 OPERATIONAL DATA
TABLE 37 TOP-SELLING ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MODELS, BY END-USE
8.1.2 ASSUMPTIONS
TABLE 38 ASSUMPTIONS: BY END-USE
8.1.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
8.2 PASSENGER CARRIER
8.2.1 NEED FOR LOWER EMISSIONS AND OPERATIONAL COSTS TO DRIVE SEGMENT
TABLE 39 PASSENGER CARRIER: ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 40 PASSENGER CARRIER: ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
8.3 LOAD CARRIER
8.3.1 GROWING ADOPTION BY LOGISTICS COMPANIES TO DRIVE SEGMENT
TABLE 41 LOAD CARRIER: ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 42 LOAD CARRIER: ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
8.4 KEY PRIMARY INSIGHTS
FIGURE 31 KEY PRIMARY INSIGHTS

9 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY MOTOR POWER (Page No. – 101)
9.1 INTRODUCTION
FIGURE 32 1,000–1,500 W SEGMENT EXPECTED TO GARNER LARGEST MARKET SHARE DURING FORECAST PERIOD
TABLE 43 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY MOTOR POWER, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 44 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY MOTOR POWER, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
9.1.1 OPERATIONAL DATA
TABLE 45 POPULAR ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MODELS, BY MOTOR POWER
FIGURE 33 ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER POWERTRAIN ARCHITECTURE
TABLE 46 FACTORS DECIDING MOTOR POWER OF ELECTRIC 3-WHEELERS
9.1.2 ASSUMPTIONS
TABLE 47 ASSUMPTIONS: BY MOTOR POWER
9.1.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
9.2 BELOW 1,000 W
9.2.1 RISING DEMAND FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT MODES OF COMMUTING TO BOOST SEGMENT
TABLE 48 BELOW 1,000 W: ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 49 BELOW 1,000 W: ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
9.3 1,000–1,500 W
9.3.1 MOTOR POWER OF 1000–1,500 W MORE FEASIBLE FOR ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER APPLICATIONS
TABLE 50 1,000–1,500 W: ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 51 1,000–1,500 W: ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
9.4 ABOVE 1,500 W
9.4.1 ELECTRIC 3-WHEELERS WITH ABOVE 1,500 W MOTOR PROVIDE BOTH DISTRIBUTION AND CONSUMER DELIVERY SERVICES
TABLE 52 ABOVE 1,500 W: ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 53 ABOVE 1,500 W: ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
9.5 KEY PRIMARY INSIGHTS
FIGURE 34 KEY PRIMARY INSIGHTS

10 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY BATTERY TYPE (Page No. – 111)
10.1 INTRODUCTION
FIGURE 35 BY BATTERY TYPE, LITHIUM-ION BATTERY SEGMENT PROJECTED TO REGISTER HIGHEST CAGR DURING FORECAST PERIOD
TABLE 54 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY BATTERY TYPE, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 55 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY BATTERY TYPE, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
10.1.1 OPERATIONAL DATA
TABLE 56 ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MODELS WITH BATTERY TYPE
10.1.2 ASSUMPTIONS
TABLE 57 ASSUMPTIONS: BY BATTERY TYPE
10.1.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
TABLE 58 MARKET SHARE: TOP ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERY MANUFACTURERS (2021)
10.2 LEAD-ACID BATTERY
10.2.1 HIGH ADOPTION OF LEAD-ACID BATTERIES DUE TO LOW COST TO DRIVE MARKET
10.3 LITHIUM-ION BATTERY
10.3.1 HIGH ENERGY DENSITY OF LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES DRIVING THEIR DEMAND
10.4 OTHERS
10.4.1 LOWER MANUFACTURING COSTS TO DRIVE MARKET FOR OTHER BATTERY SEGMENTS
TABLE 59 LIST OF BATTERY MANUFACTURERS, BY BATTERY TYPE
10.5 KEY PRIMARY INSIGHTS
FIGURE 36 KEY PRIMARY INSIGHTS

11 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY PAYLOAD CAPACITY (Page No. – 119)
11.1 INTRODUCTION
FIGURE 37 300–500 KG SEGMENT ESTIMATED TO LEAD MARKET DURING FORECAST PERIOD
TABLE 60 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY PAYLOAD CAPACITY, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 61 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY PAYLOAD CAPACITY, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
TABLE 62 INDIA ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY PAYLOAD CAPACITY, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 63 INDIA ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY PAYLOAD CAPACITY, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
11.1.1 OPERATIONAL DATA
TABLE 64 POPULAR ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MODELS, BY PAYLOAD CAPACITY
11.1.2 ASSUMPTIONS
TABLE 65 ASSUMPTIONS: BY PAYLOAD CAPACITY
11.1.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
11.2 UP TO 300 KG
11.2.1 RISING DEMAND FOR AFFORDABLE ELECTRIC 3-WHEELERS DRIVES MARKET
11.3 300–500 KG
11.3.1 ELECTRIC 3-WHEELERS WITH 300–500 KG PAYLOAD CAPACITY GENERALLY USED FOR LAST-MILE DELIVERY
11.4 ABOVE 500 KG
11.4.1 ELECTRIC 3-WHEELERS WITH ABOVE 500 KG PAYLOAD CAPACITY USED FOR LONG-DISTANCE TRANSPORTATION AND LOGISTICS
11.5 KEY PRIMARY INSIGHTS
FIGURE 38 KEY PRIMARY INSIGHTS

12 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY COUNTRY (Page No. – 125)
12.1 INTRODUCTION
FIGURE 39 INDIA ESTIMATED TO ACCOUNT FOR LARGEST MARKET SHARE IN 2022
FIGURE 40 INDIA EXPECTED TO LEAD MARKET DURING FORECAST PERIOD
TABLE 66 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 67 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY COUNTRY, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
12.1.1 INDIA
12.1.1.1 Increasing trend of last-mile delivery to boost market
TABLE 68 INDIA: GOVERNMENT SUBSIDIES & INCENTIVES, BY STATE
TABLE 69 COMPANIES ADOPTING ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER LOAD CARRIERS
TABLE 70 DEVELOPMENTS REGARDING BATTERY SWAPPING STATIONS
TABLE 71 INDIA: TOP SELLING OEMS IN ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET
TABLE 72 INDIA: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY PAYLOAD CAPACITY, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 73 INDIA: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY PAYLOAD CAPACITY, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
TABLE 74 INDIA: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY END-USE, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 75 INDIA: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY END-USE, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
TABLE 76 INDIA: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY MOTOR POWER, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 77 INDIA: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY MOTOR POWER, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
TABLE 78 INDIA: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY RANGE, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 79 INDIA: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY RANGE, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
12.1.2 JAPAN
12.1.2.1 Stringent emission standards in Japan to drive market
TABLE 80 JAPAN: TARGET FOR ADOPTION OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES
TABLE 81 JAPAN: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY END-USE, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 82 JAPAN: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY END-USE, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
TABLE 83 JAPAN: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY MOTOR POWER, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 84 JAPAN: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY MOTOR POWER, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
TABLE 85 JAPAN: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY RANGE, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 86 JAPAN: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY RANGE, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
12.1.3 THAILAND
12.1.3.1 Increasing demand for lower maintenance 3-wheelers to drive market
TABLE 87 THAILAND: TARGET FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE ADOPTION (2021-2030)
TABLE 88 THAILAND: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY END-USE, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 89 THAILAND: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY END-USE, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
TABLE 90 THAILAND: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY MOTOR POWER, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 91 THAILAND: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY MOTOR POWER, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
TABLE 92 THAILAND: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY RANGE, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 93 THAILAND: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY RANGE, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
12.1.4 BANGLADESH
12.1.4.1 Favorable government policies to drive market
TABLE 94 BANGLADESH: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER DEVELOPMENTS
TABLE 95 BANGLADESH: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY END-USE, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 96 BANGLADESH: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY END-USE, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
TABLE 97 BANGLADESH: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY MOTOR POWER, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 98 BANGLADESH: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY MOTOR POWER, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
TABLE 99 BANGLADESH: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY RANGE, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 100 BANGLADESH: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY RANGE, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
12.1.5 NEPAL
12.1.5.1 Developments in charging infrastructure to drive market
TABLE 101 NEPAL: POLICY FOR ADOPTION OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES
TABLE 102 NEPAL: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY END-USE, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 103 NEPAL: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY END-USE, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
TABLE 104 NEPAL: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY MOTOR POWER, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 105 NEPAL: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY MOTOR POWER, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
TABLE 106 NEPAL: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY RANGE, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 107 NEPAL: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY RANGE, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
12.1.6 SRI LANKA
12.1.6.1 Growing demand from tourism industry to drive market
TABLE 108 SRI LANKA: LITHIUM-ION BATTERY IMPORTERS, 2021
TABLE 109 SRI LANKA: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY END-USE, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 110 SRI LANKA: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY END-USE, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
TABLE 111 SRI LANKA: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY MOTOR POWER, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 112 SRI LANKA: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY MOTOR POWER, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
TABLE 113 SRI LANKA: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY RANGE, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 114 SRI LANKA: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY RANGE, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
12.1.7 INDONESIA
12.1.7.1 Reduction of import duties on components to drive market
TABLE 115 INDONESIA: POLICY FOR ADOPTION OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES
TABLE 116 INDONESIA: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY END-USE, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 117 INDONESIA: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY END-USE, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
TABLE 118 INDONESIA: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY MOTOR POWER, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 119 INDONESIA: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY MOTOR POWER, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
TABLE 120 INDONESIA: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY RANGE, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 121 INDONESIA: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY RANGE, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
12.1.8 PHILIPPINES
12.1.8.1 Adoption of electric 3-wheelers in major business districts and urban areas to drive market
TABLE 122 PHILIPPINES: TARGET FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES
TABLE 123 PHILIPPINES: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY END-USE, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 124 PHILIPPINES: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY END-USE, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
TABLE 125 PHILIPPINES: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY MOTOR POWER, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 126 PHILIPPINES: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY MOTOR POWER, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
TABLE 127 PHILIPPINES: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY RANGE, 2018–2021 (UNITS)
TABLE 128 PHILIPPINES: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET, BY RANGE, 2022–2027 (UNITS)
12.1.9 VIETNAM
12.1.9.1 Favorable government policies for electric vehicles to drive market
TABLE 129 VIETNAM: ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MANUFACTURERS
12.1.10 CHINA
12.1.10.1 Government mandates for electric vehicle manufacturers to drive electric 3-wheeler market
TABLE 130 CHINA: ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERY MANUFACTURERS
12.1.11 SINGAPORE
12.1.11.1 Increasing charging infrastructure to drive market
TABLE 131 SINGAPORE: TARGET FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

13 COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE (Page No. – 157)
13.1 OVERVIEW
13.2 MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS FOR ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET
TABLE 132 MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS, 2021
FIGURE 41 MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS, 2021
13.2.1 MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA LTD.
13.2.2 ATUL AUTO LTD.
13.2.3 PIAGGIO GROUP
13.2.4 LOHIA AUTO INDUSTRIES
13.2.5 KINETIC ENGINEERING LIMITED
13.3 KEY PLAYER STRATEGIES
TABLE 133 OVERVIEW OF STRATEGIES ADOPTED BY PLAYERS IN ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET
13.4 REVENUE ANALYSIS OF TOP LISTED/PUBLIC PLAYERS
FIGURE 42 TOP PUBLIC/LISTED PLAYERS DOMINATING ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET DURING LAST FIVE YEARS
13.5 COMPETITIVE SCENARIO
13.5.1 NEW PRODUCT LAUNCHES
TABLE 134 NEW PRODUCT LAUNCHES, 2018-2022
13.5.2 DEALS
TABLE 135 DEALS, 2018–2022
13.6 COMPANY EVALUATION QUADRANT
13.6.1 STARS
13.6.2 EMERGING LEADERS
13.6.3 PERVASIVE
13.6.4 PARTICIPANTS
FIGURE 43 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET: COMPANY EVALUATION QUADRANT, 2021
TABLE 136 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET: COMPANY FOOTPRINT, 2021
TABLE 137 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET: PRODUCT FOOTPRINT, 2021
TABLE 138 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET: COUNTRY FOOTPRINT, 2021
13.7 START-UP/SME EVALUATION QUADRANT
13.7.1 PROGRESSIVE COMPANIES
13.7.2 RESPONSIVE COMPANIES
13.7.3 DYNAMIC COMPANIES
13.7.4 STARTING BLOCKS
FIGURE 44 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET: START-UP/SME EVALUATION QUADRANT, 2021
TABLE 139 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET: DETAILED LIST OF KEY START-UPS/SMES
TABLE 140 ASIA PACIFIC ELECTRIC 3-WHEELER MARKET: COMPETITIVE BENCHMARKING OF KEY PLAYERS [START-UPS/SMES]
13.8 RIGHT TO WIN, 2018-2022
TABLE 141 WINNERS VS. TAIL-ENDERS

14 COMPANY PROFILES (Page No. – 172)
(Business overview, Products offered, Recent developments & MnM View)*
14.1 KEY PLAYERS
14.1.1 MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA LTD.
TABLE 142 MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA LTD.: BUSINESS OVERVIEW
FIGURE 45 MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA LTD.: COMPANY SNAPSHOT
FIGURE 46 MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA LTD.: MANUFACTURING PLANTS IN INDIA
TABLE 143 MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA LTD.: PRODUCTS OFFERED
TABLE 144 MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA LTD.: NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENTS
TABLE 145 MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA LTD: DEALS
14.1.2 ATUL AUTO LTD.
TABLE 146 ATUL AUTO LTD.: BUSINESS OVERVIEW
FIGURE 47 ATUL AUTO LTD.: COMPANY SNAPSHOT
TABLE 147 ATUL AUTO LTD.: PRODUCTS OFFERED
TABLE 148 ATUL AUTO LTD.: DEALS
TABLE 149 ATUL AUTO LTD.: OTHERS
14.1.3 PIAGGIO GROUP
TABLE 150 PIAGGIO GROUP: BUSINESS OVERVIEW
FIGURE 48 PIAGGIO GROUP: COMPANY SNAPSHOT
FIGURE 49 PIAGGIO GROUP: WORKFORCE DISTRIBUTION
TABLE 151 PIAGGIO GROUP: PRODUCTS OFFERED
TABLE 152 PIAGGIO GROUP: NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENTS
TABLE 153 PIAGGIO GROUP: DEALS
14.1.4 LOHIA AUTO INDUSTRIES
TABLE 154 LOHIA AUTO INDUSTRIES: BUSINESS OVERVIEW
TABLE 155 LOHIA AUTO INDUSTRIES: PRODUCTS OFFERED
TABLE 156 LOHIA AUTO INDUSTRIES: NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENTS
14.1.5 KINETIC ENGINEERING LIMITED
TABLE 157 KINETIC ENGINEERING LIMITED: BUSINESS OVERVIEW
FIGURE 50 KINETIC ENGINEERING LIMITED: COMPANY SNAPSHOT
TABLE 158 KINETIC ENGINEERING LIMITED: PRODUCTS OFFERED
TABLE 159 KINETIC ENGINEERING LIMITED: NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENTS
TABLE 160 KINETIC ENGINEERING LIMITED: DEALS
TABLE 161 KINETIC ENGINEERING LIMITED: OTHERS
14.1.6 JIANGSU JINPENG GROUP CO., LTD.
TABLE 162 JIANGSU JINPENG GROUP CO., LTD.: BUSINESS OVERVIEW
TABLE 163 JIANGSU JINPENG GROUP CO., LTD.: PRODUCTS OFFERED
TABLE 164 JIANGSU JINPENG GROUP CO., LTD.: DEALS
TABLE 165 JIANGSU JINPENG GROUP CO., LTD.: OTHERS
14.1.7 SKYRIDE AUTOMOTIVE
TABLE 166 SKYRIDE AUTOMOTIVE: BUSINESS OVERVIEW
TABLE 167 SKYRIDE AUTOMOTIVE: PRODUCTS OFFERED
14.1.8 SHADO GROUP INTERNATIONAL PTE. LTD.
TABLE 168 SHADO GROUP INTERNATIONAL PTE. LTD.: BUSINESS OVERVIEW
TABLE 169 SHADO GROUP INTERNATIONAL PTE. LTD.: PRODUCTS OFFERED
TABLE 170 SHADO GROUP INTERNATIONAL PTE. LTD.: NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENTS
TABLE 171 SHADO GROUP INTERNATIONAL PTE. LTD.: OTHERS
14.1.9 BEEVATECH LIMITED
TABLE 172 BEEVATECH LIMITED: BUSINESS OVERVIEW
TABLE 173 BEEVATECH LIMITED: PRODUCTS OFFERED
14.1.10 SL MOBILITY
TABLE 174 SL MOBILITY: BUSINESS OVERVIEW
TABLE 175 SL MOBILITY: PRODUCTS OFFERED
*Details on Business overview, Products offered, Recent developments & MnM View might not be captured in case of unlisted companies.
14.2 OTHER PLAYERS
14.2.1 TERRA MOTORS CORPORATION
14.2.2 CHANGZHOU YUFENG VEHICLE CO., LTD.
14.2.3 XIANGHE QIANGSHENG ELECTRIC TRICYCLE FACTORY
14.2.4 JIANGSU EAST YONSLAND VEHICLE MANUFACTURING CO., LTD.
14.2.5 ELECTRIC VEHICLES (THAILAND) CO., LTD.
14.2.6 PROZZA HIROSE MANUFACTURING INC.
14.2.7 BAJAJ AUTO
14.2.8 GAYAM MOTOR WORKS PRIVATE LIMITED
14.2.9 BEMAC CORPORATION
14.2.10 SPEEGO VEHICLES CO. PVT. LIMITED
14.2.11 OMEGA SEIKI PRIVATE LIMITED
14.2.12 KSL CLEANTECH LIMITED
14.2.13 ALTIGREEN
14.2.14 GREEN SHUTTLE TECHNOLOGY PVT. LTD.
14.2.15 KAWAOKA MACHINERY AND ELECTRIC (NANTONG) CO., LTD.

15 RECOMMENDATIONS BY MARKETSANDMARKETS (Page No. – 209)
15.1 INDIA IS KEY FOCUS MARKET FOR ELECTRIC 3-WHEELERS
15.2 INCREASING POPULATION AND DEMAND FOR SHARED MOBILITY TO DRIVE PASSENGER CARRIER SEGMENT
15.3 CONCLUSION

16 APPENDIX (Page No. – 211)
16.1 KEY INSIGHTS FROM INDUSTRY EXPERTS
16.2 DISCUSSION GUIDE
16.3 KNOWLEDGE STORE: MARKETSANDMARKETS SUBSCRIPTION PORTAL
16.4 AVAILABLE CUSTOMIZATIONS
16.5 RELATED REPORTS
16.6 AUTHOR DETAILS


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